Monday, 11 February 2013

Indus Valley

Indus Valley

Extent of the Indus Valley
The Indus Valley existed to the archeozoic to middle Bronze old age (33001300 BC). It consisted of what is now mainly Pakistan and northwest India. It primarily centered on Baluchistan, Sindh and Punjab region, extending into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley with an upward reach to Rupar on the upper Sutlej and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab. The geographics of the Indus Valley put the civilizations that arose there in a highly similar situation to those in Egypt and Peru, with rich agricultural lands macrocosm surrounded by highlands, desert, and ocean. Geographically, it was spread over an area of some(prenominal) 1,260,000 km², making it the largest ancient civilization in the beingness with a population of well over five million along with its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt.
The Indus Valley subtlety has been tentatively set and known from Sumerian records. It has been compared in particular with the civilizations of Elam (in the context of the Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis). The spring up phase of Indus Valley Civilization is known as the Harappan Civilization (Harrapan 1), named after the nearby Ravi River, lasted from circa 3300 BCE until 2800 BCE, as the first of its cities to be unearthed was fixed at Harappa, excavated in the 1920s.

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Then the Kot Diji (Harappan 2) Phase, (2800-2600 BC), also known as Late phase was identified after find of Mohen jo Daro, in northern Sindh, Pakistan. Thus the entire IVC may be taken to have lasted from the 33rd to the 14th centuries BC. According to some archaeologists, approximately 100 sites have been discovered along the Indus and its tributaries. By 1931, lots of Mohenjo-Daro had been excavated, but excavations continued in 1944. By 2600 BC the early Harappan communities turned to large urban centers like Harappa, Ganeriwala, Mohen jo-Daro.

Excavated ruins of Mohen jo-daro, with the Great vat in the front
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